Latin American Journal of Trade Policy <p>The Latin American Journal of Trade Policy is an official publication of the Institute of International Studies of the University of Chile. Following an open access policy, the full version of the journal, and individual papers, will be available on-line free of charge.</p> <p>The Latin American Journal of Trade Policy (LAJTP) focusses on trade policy issues in Latin America from a multidisciplinary perspective. A particular aim of the journal is reduce the gap between academia and policymakers. As such, the journal encourages paper submissions on topics related to trade policy formulation, implementation and evaluation; international trade agreements and their impact, including WTO issues and preferential trade agreements; Latin American regional integration processes; and, bilateral trade and investment relations both between Latin American countries and with overseas economies.</p> <p>The journal is interested in publishing papers that draw policy relevant conclusions from academic research, that confront theoretical models with the Latin American experience and that use the specific regional experiences to develop new models. Particular consideration is given to empirical articles using quantitative, qualitative, or a mixed methods approach.</p> <p>We encourage the submission of articles that:</p> <ul> <li class="show">contribute to existing knowledge of trade policy making in Latin America;</li> <li class="show">develop and advance pertinent theories to the region;</li> <li class="show">deal with the gap between academia and policy making;</li> <li class="show">utilize quantitative, qualitative, and mixed method approaches.</li> </ul> <p>All correspondence regarding academic or formal aspects, or any other request related to the Journal, should be addressed to:</p> <p><strong>Editorial Team:</strong> <a href=""></a></p> <p><strong>Twitter:</strong> <a href="">@latin_iei</a></p> Institute of International Studies, University of Chile en-US Latin American Journal of Trade Policy 0719-9368 Women in global trade Globally, advancements in trade have benefited millions of women, but assuming that these benefits are distributed equitably between men and women would be a mistake. However, market opening has not generated equitable benefits between men and women, raising questions about the inequalities that limit female participation in trade (WTO, 2020). Given that most female economic activity is in micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs), implementing strategies to promote women's participation in trade involves examining how MSMEs can integrate into commercial activities (WTO, 2020). Therefore, it is essential to have studies that identify the barriers preventing the full participation of women-owned businesses in international markets. In the current context, it is essential to explore the challenges faced by STEM micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs) led by women in Chile. This study identifies four main obstacles: gender biases in the business environment, harmonization between family and professional responsibilities, limited availability of financing, and temporal discrepancy between technological advancements and current regulations. A nivel global, los avances en el comercio han beneficiado a millones de mujeres, pero asumir que estos beneficios se distribuyen equitativamente entre hombres y mujeres sería un error. Sin embargo, la apertura de los mercados no ha generado beneficios equitativos entre hombres y mujeres, planteando interrogantes sobre las desigualdades que limitan la participación femenina en el comercio (OMC, 2020). Dado que la mayor parte de la actividad económica femenina se encuentra en las micro, pequeñas y medianas empresas (MIPYME), la implementación de estrategias para promover la participación de las mujeres en el comercio implica examinar cómo las MIPYME pueden integrarse en las actividades comerciales (OMC, 2020). Para ello, es fundamental contar con estudios que identifiquen cuáles son las barreras que impiden una plena participación de las empresas de mujeres en los mercados internacionales. En el presente contexto, resulta esencial explorar los desafíos a los que se enfrentan las micro, pequeñas y medianas empresas (MIPYME) STEM dirigidas por mujeres en Chile. Este estudio identifica cuatro obstáculos principales: los sesgos de género presentes en el entorno empresarial, la armonización entre las responsabilidades familiares y profesionales, la limitada disponibilidad de financiamiento y la discrepancia temporal entre los avances tecnológicos y las regulaciones actuales. Paula Campillay Copyright (c) 2024 Paula Campillay 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 6 18 10.5354/0719-9368.2024.74255 Pyramid visualization applied to export performance The objective is to visualize the performance of Mexican exports of petroleum oils, for the years from 2002 to 2021. Balassa Index is an indicator that is used to measure export performance for a given product compared against the total of exports from one country to another. A four-sided pyramidal model is used; it is built from the results of the Balassa Index (IB), being the height of the pyramid, the overall performance and the base is the BI for each destination. Data of exports of petroleum oils, heading 27.10 to the United States of America, Brazil, Colombia and Guatemala are used. Finally, a dynamic model is proposed by using regression equation. The results show that pyramids allow to adequately visualize the performance of the analysed exports, in addition, the described methodology allows its application to any tariff code. Sergio Lagunas Puls Miguel Angel Oropeza Tagle Brenda Lizeth Soto Pérez Copyright (c) 2024 Sergio Lagunas Puls, Miguel Angel Oropeza Tagle , Brenda Lizeth Soto Pérez 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 6 18 10.5354/0719-9368.2024.73502 Approaching the gender perspective The link between trade and gender is complex and multifaceted, since not all societies understand it in the same way or present the same asymmetries. Besides, international trade and economic globalization have a significant impact on the way societies treat gender equality and how people experience it in different spaces and contexts, which undoubtedly presents great challenges. The concept of gender perspective has emerged as a crucial conceptual framework in a variety of academic and practical fields, including, but not limited to, the field of international trade; Therefore, the main objective of this article is to describe the theoretical-conceptual approach to the link between trade and gender, understood it, in its traditional form, as synonymous of women, and also its benefits and challenges. In this article, a descriptive and descriptive-explanatory approach was used as a method and technique, which sought to establish the relation and correlation between the variables under study, through a bibliographic review of primary and mainly secondary sources to obtain as results an approach of key concepts of the link between trade and gender. The gender perspective challenges traditional, hegemonic, and homogeneous visions of the world, promoting instead inclusion, equity and respect for human diversity in all its forms; International trade and economic globalization for their part have a significant impact on the way societies treat gender equality and how people experience it, the challenges are still quite a few. Gerald Solano Copyright (c) 2024 Gerald Solano 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 6 18 10.5354/0719-9368.2024.74308 The rise and stagnation of Chile's export cycle Chile's international insertion strategy has been a critical driver of economic growth since the 1970s. However, real exports of goods and services have lost dynamism in the last two decades. Therefore, this article argues that such deceleration is due to the stagnation of the export cycle, given the liberal narrative in which Chile, a country endowed with natural resources, should specialize according to its static comparative advantages and assign a subsidiary role to the State. Indeed, the evidence for Chile shows that a long-term export cycle based on natural resources not complemented by industrial policies leads to specialization in export sectors with low technological dynamism. Chile's international insertion in the global economy also has limited exports to a few products, destination markets, and firms. To diversify exports, Chile needs to move towards more technology-intensive sectors and more dynamic in terms of demand in world markets. To the extent that exports become more concentrated in these sectors, there will be a greater likelihood that innovation and productivity will occur at higher rates, boosting Chile's long-term economic growth. Fernando Sossdorf Copyright (c) 2024 Fernando Sossdorf 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 6 18 10.5354/0719-9368.2024.74309